Virtual Private Networks: Things to Look for in a VPN Provider

Virtual Private Networks allow secure connections between personal networks via creating use of the world wide web. They let the pc systems even those in the remote places to operate as though they were on the identical regional and protected network. A fantastic deal of firms utilize VPN simply because they are efficient, beneficial, and secure. Imagine, you can be in your home and access the computer systems in your organization as if you were simply sitting there! And while doing this, no 3rd party trespasser can tap, snoop, or disrupt your data. Plainly, obtaining a VPN is a great point, appropriate?

Now, though operating in a VPN is undoubtedly a great notion, it is essential creating confident that you pick the best business for you. Naturally, this will very depend upon your demands and concerns. Some individuals require to use a private network to bypass a internet restriction or survive blocked websites. On the other hand, some may possibly use a VPN just to take pleasure in foreign Tv applications online, or surf the web although hiding their actual IP address.

Most VPN firm operate to obtain the biggest quantity of functions in their services. Naturally, they wish to encourage and please as a lot of customers as they can at the very same time. Nonetheless, this does not imply that you usually want to pick the service provider, which has the most quantity of gives. It is wiser to select a VPN supplier based upon other far more crucial criteria.

For 1, you might wish to uncover out about the obtainable servers of the Virtual Private Networks carriers in your location. Exactly where are they identified? This can be crucial, as you might call for permission to utilize other servers in the future.

It is likewise important to inspect the speed of their connection. Sure, the service provider can supply you a notion nonetheless, you happen to be not anticipated to basically take their word for it. They are, after all, working, right? Of course, they would inform you all the very good. Nonetheless, to guarantee that they are delivering high quality service, it would be helpful to read evaluations and feedbacks from other consumers.

When the feedbacks are wonderful, then you are most probably hunting at a great supplier. However apart from possessing a appear at their server places and speeds, you ought to likewise think about the therapy of establishing the account. How is the installation and setup going to be? It needs to not be as well lengthy or complex. If it is, you may well have a extended and difficult dilemma in the future too.

The bandwidth limitation is also one thing you might want to examine. Generally although, it could run anyplace between five and 20 GB every month. Even so, some carriers offer premium packages that provide you limitless bandwidth. Based upon your specifications, you may well want to register for anything like the latter.

Lastly, the technical assistance also matters a lot when it pertains to looking for the very best VPN organization. As virtual private networks are developed for special goal, it is important to maintain them operating as efficiently and completely as feasible. Therefore, any fantastic VPN service provider have to have the ability to offer you its client with a wonderful and trusted after-sales service.

Michael Maxstead specializes in composing and advising people on VPN technologies. By going to his site you can understand more about vpn evaluation and protected tunnel.

Free, unrestricted, and safe and secure VPN for Google Chrome
And, as you might have guessed, Hotspot Shield have an extension for Google Chrome that&#39&#39 s not only entirely free to use, nevertheless is ad-free of charge and totally endless. I &#39 ve been using it here for some time now and it does what is states it does, and has been totally …
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Microsoft Small Business- Free Helpful Information For Small Business Government Loans

Choose a certain pastime you enjoy closely and alter it into a residence company. A massive quantity of individuals make the demanding error of following the tide and attempting to earn revenue the exact same way people are generating it. Take into account example a person’s enthusiasm for music. You can actually just open a small tune store that could be a regular provider of brand-new and old music.

As you search for Microsoft little organization connected details or other details per finest little firm to open or income calculator, take a small time to view the under brief report. It’ll offer you with a reasonably rejuvenating understanding of the Microsoft small business particulars you are going to need. After going thru it you will be far better educated about details in some sort linked enterprise for sale or possibly California tiny business grants official grants free CD.

As a recognized pro in your field of competence you can diversify your portfolio and supply solutions to non-public consumers. An accountant can terribly swiftly do the books for fellow family and pals at a low-price. A lawyer can also represent customers with legal battles she comes across each and every day. At the truly core of this reliable strategy is a excellent listening ear.Appropriate preparation will make certain your conference is a persuading success. Region is an vital element that you need to contemplate when you are deciding on a meeting center. Make certain that the individuals of the conference can reach the delegated location very easily.

Lots of exporters have suffered heavy losses simply because they ignored the proven reality that their products have to satisfy the alternatives and specifications of the purchasers in the target industry. Even though it is really possible to adjust individuals’s preferences by way of marketing and advertising, it is way significantly easier and much less costly to switch the item or to get a marketplace exactly where the item meets requirements.

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A residence primarily based business that take benefit of this audience with an simple quick marketing video might find its revenues improve extremely. And again, the approach that the process operates is pretty straightforward.Scheduling is a program for finishing essential jobs prior to they end up becoming crucial. A proper schedule consists of a starting, middle and end. It’s not a job list nor is it suitable time management, though it can assist with both. Generating an efficient schedule and routine assures you align your organization with your life, the people you deal with, and the loved ones that you like.

Remember, advertising and marketing is an investment. It is hardly ever indicated as a get wealthy quickly endeavor. Even although you advertised in a paper with 1,000,000 plus readers, your ad is not going to provide huge overnight outcomes. Folks obtaining an interest in this sort of advertising and marketing can see wonderful success nonetheless the plan ought to be budgeted efficiently and regarded as a long term method.

A number of us searching for Microsoft little firm also searched on the internet for tiny company concepts, bell south, as effectively as kinds of effective tiny companies, firm classifieds.

A tiny company that hyperlinks right into this audience with an effortless brief marketing and advertising video may discover its incomes increase exponentially. And when once more, the method that the process functions is relatively basic.Scheduling is a technique for finishing essential tasks prior to they become essential. A appropriate schedule contains a beginning, middle and finish. It isn’t actually a to-do list nor is it proper resource management, even though it can assist with both. Creating a reliable schedule and routine guarantees you align your business with your life, the folk you’re utilised with, and the great close friends and household that you like.

So here is chance to get your totally free pointers on microsoft small business and in addition to that get fundamental details on conserving funds see bank loan poor credit

Sanders&#39 &#39 Proposal Sets a Hazardous Precedent
This demand represents a huge overreach by the government into U.S organization and a significant danger to the drug improvement process as a entire. Nevertheless, Senator Sanders&#39 &#39 proposition doesn &#39 t just have the possible to undermine the drug advancement …
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Bad Credit Home Equity Loans ? Loans from the value of the house

For borrowers with poor credit, organization of finance has a difficult task. This is mostly to make the difficult financial scenario and the adverse credit report the lender refuses to monetary help. But the equation modifications entirely if the borrower agrees to certain assets such as home warranty. Here the borrowers can have access to funding, not only with him, the interest prices are quite competitive. With the creation of BadProperty equity loans, borrowers can very easily be varied to your demands, regardless of your credit worthiness.

– Fixed Equity Loans

These loans serve as collateral for loans and for loans, the worth of equity, which indicates that the home as collateral. House equity that the present marketplace worth of the residence, minus the debts taken against him in the past. The loan will be approved on the basis of existing marketplace value. HoweverSome of these lenders are also seeking for monthly income, and so on., the capacity to spend, whilst the approval of loans.

– Fixed Equity Loans

The most significant advantage to advantage from the loans is the reality that elevated the quantity of such loans to borrowers parody of interest prices quite competitive. This is specifically linked to the assure to accompany the quantity offered by these loans with versatile repayment deadlines. With these loans borrower can meet allpersonal or enterprise requirements without having difficulties.

These loans are for borrowers who are presented two choices: – loans secured house common, which implies that HELOC Residence Equity Line of Credit. The normal type of mortgage loans offer a higher quantity and is valuable in order to meet crucial financial requirements. The other alternative HELOC, the borrower can access the funding rate for a specified period.

It is constantly advisableTo seek option solutions, both the positive aspects of the loan. This can be done via the application on-line help to confirm that the borrower compare offers from distinct lenders. This entails deciding on a lender that delivers loans to cover the actual charges beneath.

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Dow Drops 500 Points
 Bad Credit Home Equity Loans Loans from the value of the house
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AIG Tumbles 61%, Pushing
Dow to a 500-Point Decline

September 15, 2008 six:13 p.m.

The stock market place suffered its worst everyday plunge in almost seven years Monday as the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers Holdings threw the U.S. monetary method into an abyss, uncertain where the bottom of its credit-associated difficulties lies.

Lehman’s demise makes it the largest casualty however in the long-operating credit crisis, which has so far observed torrents of red ink, restructurings and acquisitions, and shutterings of a couple of commercial banks. But until Sunday night, no Wall Street firm of such size and stature had suffered an all-out meltdown.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average, which languished with a loss amongst 200 and 300 points for most of the day, saw its losses accelerate in the final hour of trading to endure its worst every day point drop since trading resumed following the 9/11 terror attacks. The Dow ended down by 504.48 points on Monday, off four.4%, at its everyday low of 10917.51, down 18% on the year.

All 30 of the Dow’s elements fell, save for Coca-Cola, which rose .five%.

American International Group plunged 60.eight%. The Federal Reserve Monday asked Goldman Sachs Group and J.P. Morgan Chase to support make – billion in loans offered to the organization, according to individuals familiar with the circumstance. The insurer has been racing to restructure its enterprise and raise fresh capital to steer clear of a downgrade of its credit ratings.

The number of large players on Wall Street is dwindling, but traders mentioned it remains to be noticed where and for how significantly longer the ill effects of soured credit bets will continue to surface. A series of events by way of the end of the week, such as a Fed meeting Tuesday and stock-possibilities expiration Friday, could shed far more light on the state of the economic system and send investors on an additional dizzying ride.

&quotIt’s a dicey situation right now,&quot said Bill King, chief market place strategist at M. Ramsey King Securities in Burr Ridge, Ill. &quotYou have a lot of guys right now who never know who to trade with simply because of counter-celebration troubles,&quot specially in the credit markets, exactly where traders mentioned it remained hard to uncover buyers for specific securities in spite of the final 24 hours’ realignment on Wall Street.

Bank of America was an additional massive decliner among Dow stocks, off 21.3%. The business had been a suitor for Lehman but pulled out of talks as it became apparent in current days that the Fed would not guarantee the financing of an acquisition as it did in J.P. Morgan Chase’s purchase of Bear Stearns in March. Alternatively, Bank of America rapidly moved to purchase Merrill Lynch on Monday. Merrill shares ended little changed.

Two remaining massive investment banks — Goldman and Morgan Stanley — saw their shares fall. Goldman was off 12.1%, whilst Morgan Stanley fell 13.five%. Each firms are due to report their fiscal third-quarter results in the subsequent couple of days and are expected to try to make the case that they are quite different from Lehman and Merrill. Analysts are expecting each and every to remain in the black but are bracing for create-downs of billion to billion every at Goldman and Morgan Stanley.

Financial stocks in the S&ampP 500 fell 9% as a group. The sector has shed .27 trillion in market value because October 2007. Financials now comprise 14.four% of the S&ampP 500, down from 22% at the finish of 2006.

&quotToo considerably leverage is the alpha and omega of this story,&quot said Doug Kass, president of the hedge fund Seabreeze Partners Management in Palm Beach, Fla., referring to monetary firms’ use of borrowed income to make bets on securities tied to risky mortgages. In a note to consumers Monday, he criticized some banks’ use of 30 dollars in leverage for every dollar of collateral in current years – a practice that efficiently amplified losses when rates of properties and the credit bets themselves began to fall.

In an interview, Mr. Kass added: &quotWe’re moving into the timeframe in which it makes sense to look for properly-valued (financial) stocks. But investors should nonetheless take a conservative approach,&quot which includes relatively little-sized bets on a recovery following more than a year of rocky credit trading and plummeting share rates in the economic sector.

In distinct, the final handful of days’ events have underscored the challenges facing the Fed, the Treasury Department, and other federal regulators, who are trying to strike a delicate balance among establishing a sturdy framework for the financial method while at the same time permitting markets to reward intelligent choices and punish undesirable ones. By taking the rescue option off the table for Lehman, the U.S. government effectively declared that there are limits to its part as backstop-in-chief — a concept that could have implications for other troubled firms in the months ahead.

Just last week, the government seized mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and months prior it brokered the sale of Bear Stearns to J.P. Morgan. But now, Washington seems to want Wall Street to largely fix its personal issues.

&quotWe’ve re-established ‘moral hazard,’&quot a person involved in the Lehman talks told the Journal, referring to the notion that the government ought to eschew bailouts, given that economic firms may take more dangers if they’re insulated from the consequences. &quotIs that a good point or a bad point? We’re about to uncover out.&quot

Other monetary bellwethers suffered Monday. Wachovia plummeted 25% as analysts raised questions about the prospective require for Wachovia to raise new capital to absorb future losses. Mike Mayo of Deutsche Bank downgraded the stock to &quotHold&quot from &quotBuy,&quot concerned about Wachovia’s huge portfolio of risky bets on adjustable-rate mortgages, which he named a wild card in analyzing the firm.

&quotOur view has been that Wachovia does not need much more capital,&quot he mentioned in a study note, considering that he thinks loan losses over the next handful of years will be less than anticipated. Nonetheless, provided elevated concerns about financial development and intense pressure in monetary markets, &quotthis margin of safety has been decreased.&quot

Troubled Washington Mutual tumbled 26.7% as investors feared it would not be capable to find a buyer to shore up its books.

After the close, S&ampP Ratings Solutions lowered its credit ratings on Washington Mutual to junk. &quotIncreasing industry turmoil and the associated impact from managing its concentrated mortgage franchise in this troubled housing and credit cycle led to the downgrade of WAMU,&quot said S&ampP credit analyst Victoria Wagner. &quotThe company’s weak equity pricing in the markets is also a concern, and it increasingly appears that industry circumstances could overtake credit fundamentals and leave the firm with greatly diminished financial flexibility.&quot

Other stock yardsticks suffered Monday. The Nasdaq Composite Index was off four.7% to 2179.91, near a 6-month low and down 18% on the year. The tiny-stock Russell 2000 fell 4.two% to 689.76, down 19% on the year. The S&ampP 500 was off four.7% to 1192.96, down 19% on the year. All the broad measure’s sectors fell.

Among names listed on the New York Stock Exchange, about 8.1 billion shares changed hands, a new record. Decliners outnumbered advancers nearly 19 to one on the exchange.

Credit markets showed handful of signs of relief. The Fed-funds price traded as higher as six.five% Monday, nicely above the central bank’s two% target as demand for cash far outstripped supply. The shortage forced the Fed to inject a enormous billion money through its every day repurchase-agreement operation, which helped bring down the price to three.five%.

Traders stated that numerous Wall Street firms presented a staggering 3 billion in mortgage-backed paper to use as collateral for repo agreements, but the Fed only accepted about billion of it — a sign that significantly of that debt remains as well toxic for the Fed to assume on its books.

In the meantime, the 3-month Libor/OIS spread, a gauge of pressure in the money markets, widened to about 104.6 basis points from about 84.5 basis points Friday. Monday’s reading was its widest since December when the gap enhanced to above 110 basis points, a record.

&quotThese markets just continue to be broken,&quot said Don Wilson, head of DRW Trading, a proprietary firm active in Chicago’s interest-price pits.

Treasury costs surged, pushing interest rates reduced as investors sought protected havens. The two-year note was lately up 23/32, yielding 1.844%. The benchmark 10-year note was up 1-18/32, yielding 3.527%. The 30-year bond jumped 2-three/32 to yield four.193%.

Crude-oil futures settled down .47 at .71 on the New York Mercantile Exchange on Monday on fears that the financial crisis could additional slow the wider economy and fuel demand. It was oil’s initial finish under since early March.

The dollar dropped against the Japanese currency, altering hands recently at 105.47 yen, down from 107.87 yen late Friday. But the dollar managed to post gains against the euro and British pound.

Write to Peter A. McKay at

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Tips to Keep Your Home Secure

Some of my friends may find me a bit annoying. I don’t really mind, though sometimes I think that they don’t really understand my thinking on security issues. Maybe I am just more safety conscious than most. Anyway, do you feel safe in your home? Do you feel safe while shopping? Do you pay attention to what is going on around you?……all the time? You, like most people don’t and there-in lies the problem. You don’t really want to be a victim and show up on the evening news, do you?

One of the first things you must do to protect your family is to have an alarm system installed in your home. Look in your phone book to find installers near you. Give them a call and find out the offerings, compare them to get the best deal. Make sure they respond well by checking with those that have a system installed. Check with your police department about the best system in your area. You want to be sure that the system you decide on responds not only to break-ins but also to your fire alarm and has an instant 911 panic button.

Some other things you can do to make your home secure is:

1. Make sure your outside doors have deadbolt locks on them.

2. Install a video monitoring system with infrared so that they can ‘see’ after dark.

3. Get yourself a BIG dog that is trained as a watch dog. They can be used indoors as well.

4. Use special reinforced plexiglass or lexan as windows instead of glass, especially on the ground floor.

5. You could also use decorative steel bars on your windows and doors.

Keep your bushes trimmed so that they don’t hide your windows or give criminals a place to hide. Keep your window shades/blinds closed, especially at night, so that criminals can’t track your movements or see what is inside.

I know that many are afraid of guns and wouldn’t have one in their home. But, I wouldn’t want to live in a home without one. I have several handguns and a 12 gauge shotgun. I don’t have any small children in my home so that isn’t an issue, however, if you have small children, keep the guns away from them. You can always put the shotgun by your bed only at night. The best choice, in my opinion, is a 12 gauge pump shot gun with shells loaded with buckshot about the size of BB’s. The sound of jacking a shell into the chamber will scare most criminals away, they know that sound.

Organize a neighborhood watch program by getting your neighbors involved in watching your property while you are watching theirs. Your local police department may be able to help you with this. Some local governments have a program setup for this, with training classes for all those that want to become involved. The police obviously can’t be everywhere, help them out by reporting suspicious activity in your neighborhood.

Doing these things will help to protect your family from criminals and fire. You will feel safer and be able to sleep soundly at night knowing that your home is secure.

Bill has been writing for the online community for a few years and has several blogs and websites that reflect his interests, one of his latest blogs can be viewed here:

14_all the white to form the bars red, white, and red
 Tips to Keep Your Home Secure
Image by Jim Surkamp
Script below – Read with Images Sequenced in the Script – JS

The Song of Mary Entler by Jim Surkamp 7888 words

The Song of Mary Entler Herrington by Jim Surkamp

The Song of Mary Louise Entler Herrington (1840-1932)

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University system, offering a quality, affordable, online education. Interpretations in videos and posts do not in any way reflect modern-day policies and positions of American Public University System. More . . .

Flag Dangerous:
Carry the Secret Mail:
The Sad Fate of the Great Western:
A Wartime Shepherdstown Each Day:
A Sidetracked Mission:
“Fraternizing” With the Enemy:
Peacetime – Eternal Tide of Memories:
The Eyes of Age:

About the end of the heydays of a great inn; about the innkeeper’s feisty, adventurous – amorous – young daughter during the Civil War who lived to tell about it and see her family’s inn perish


2_The 1850s in Shepherdstown
The 1850s in Shepherdstown: Good Times for Joseph and Mary Entler

3_The Entlers boarded travelers
The Entlers boarded travelers and stabled their teams by the score in their Great Western Inn on Shepherdstown’s German Street.

As Mary Louise Entler Herrington (hereafter “MLH”) told it:
After my father bought it in 1809, he hung a large sign swung across the pavement at the east corner of the house. A heavy post at the curb supported one side and the other side was fastened to the house.

4_In the middle of the sign
In the middle of the sign in large letters that were plainly visible for squares up and down the street was the word, “INN”, and just below that, ‘JOS. ENTLER”.

For many years it was a welcome abode to the weary traveler, for then all traveling was by wagon and carriage from Ohio and Kentucky to Baltimore and Washington, where their produce was sold and groceries and other commodities were taken back. All these white-covered wagons were placed in the large grounds and the weary horses were comfortably bedded down and fed in the large stone stables by good trusty colored men.

The house was a quaint, 52-foot-long weatherboard house with massive stone steps to both front doors and stone trimmings and steps to the front cellars and long massive stone stiles or (carriage stepping stones).

The dining room was 34-feet-long. The ice house was under the dining room and was filled every winter with twenty-five, four-horse wagon loads of ice, which lasted until fall. The ice was from the Potomac River.

5_The large fireplace was in the kitchen
The large fireplace was in the kitchen that also had the cranes and pothooks and hangers.

Seventeen rooms were in the house and many also had large old-fashioned fireplaces and were finished with high-paneled mantelpieces.

In the 1850s children remembered the fancy carriages, with many horses pulling, making the smart, sharp turn from the main streeet to the lane leading to the rear stables.

6_lane leading to the rear stables
All circuses stopped at this inn and pitched their tents in the large lot arranging the cages of wild animals around the circle inside and all other wagons outside the tent.

Joseph Entler moved his family to Wingerd Cottage in 1858 and leased out the Great Western. Then that all ended – and, so did the Great Western.


7_Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance
Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance – and several friends sat in chairs in the big hall of Wingerd Cottage sewing . . and sewing – ripping stars from an American flag mailed to them from New Orleans, that once waved from a ship of Rezin Davis Shepherd’s, as he perhaps thought such a flag might be more trouble to have in New Orleans, as the new war boiled over and Louisiana seceded from the Union in early 1861.

8_Mary Entler Herrington retold her past
Mary Licklider, a niece, recalled how Mary Entler Herrington retold her past before dying in 1932:

A U.S. flag, probably made of wool bunting fabric was given to four or five young girls (young girls at the time), by Mr.

9_Rezin Shepherd
Rezin Shepherd who lived in New Orleans. In the summer he lived at Wild Goose Farm. The flag was one from one of his vessels. It was sent to us by Mr. James Shepherd and was to be converted into a Confederate flag, a work that was dangerous at the time, being in disputed territory. We could work only when our men were in the lines and had to be very cautious then.

10_Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage
My father Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage during the war and there the flag was made. The location off from town and the large wide hall were ideal places for the work, which took many anxious weeks to complete.

11_It was very tedious to rip every seam
It was very tedious to rip every seam of the stripes in such a way as not to ravel the bunting.

12_Every star was ripped from the blue field
Every star was ripped from the blue field, and

13_then to sew all the red together
then to sew all the red together

14_all the white to form the bars red, white, and red
and all the white to form the bars red, white, and red.

15_Of course we had a surplus of stars
Of course we had a surplus of stars as the Confederacy was young.

After many weeks of work, the flag was finished and a beautiful Confederate flag was ready to be sent through the line to Company B. It was hidden away awaiting a safe transfer. (Mary’s brother – Cato Moore Entler – was with Company B of the 2nd Virginia Infantry).

MLH recalled an investigation in the fall of 1861:

16_I heard the tramp of cavalry
I heard the tramp of cavalry and clank of swords and sabers. I looked out the window and saw the cottage was surrounded by “Yankee” cavalry.

Oh, the flag, what was to be done with it? I heard the officer read orders to my father to search his premises thoroughly for contraband goods. My father seemed to be protesting against the search. But that gave me a little time to take the flag from its hiding place in a chest. The house was surrounded. I could not get out to hide it.

I pulled a dress from the wall and put the flag in it and threw the dress carelessly across the back of a chair. Skirts were very wide with deep facings upon them. I put the little flags that we wore on our dresses and letters under the carpet.

17_My door was pushed open
My door was pushed open by Capt. Horner of Col. Coles’ Cavalry and the search began. Every bureau drawer and closet was searched, even the grandfather clock where reposed letters to go through the lines. But they were too deep in the bottom of the old clock to be detected. Everything was handled but the blue-striped dress hovering over its precious treasure. It was too insignificant to attract their notice and they gave up the search, but rather in a bad humor. The flag was safe and sent to Company B. That flag would be readily recognized by its many seams and its homemade marks. Now what became of that flag is a mystery.

Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas, the 30th of October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Another private group in Charles Town had had a regimental flag made for the 2nd Virginia infantry regiment that the unit reportedly carried into battle at First Manassas/Bull Run, but was smuggled back to the Rutherfords in Charles Town.


March, 1862

MLH recalled:
19_We collected all letters and concealed them
We collected all letters and concealed them by carefully sewing them between the ruching and dress. It required neatness and patience to make the work look innocent of anything contraband. We started on our march one bright beautiful morning but the roads being soft and muddy and we being not yet accustomed to marching could not get over much ground as rapidly as Stonewall Jackson’s men. The first night was spent at the home of Mr. Foley where another mail was collected. Another bright morning blessed our errand and when the purple shades of evening were gathering in the west we entered Charles Town as leisurely and passed the Union soldiers as indifferently as though we were out for an evening stroll. What a triumph it would have been for them to have secured that mail; how they would have gloated over every sacred sentence in those letters. My heart thrilled with fear at the thought although apparently so indifferent to their presence.


December 26, 1862: The 12th Pennsylvania cavalry – The Bull Run Racers – crossed over the river ford into town and the (Federal-sympathcizing) refugees all came back from Maryland with a fire in their eyes and revenge for Mort Cookus’ blood (who was shot and killed by Andrew Leopold near Dam No. 4 on November 19th. (The refugees) declared that every Southern man’s house should be burned down. – Gallaher in “The Shepherdstown Register.”

The property was a hotel (in market for rent at the time). It was taken possession of and occupied by a Pennsylvania Cavalry Company. The extensive grounds in which were apple trees and vegetables were trampled and all the fencing destroyed.


MLH recalled:
1863 still finds our town disputed territory and a veritable “deserted village” – old men, women, and children with a very few Union men . . . In time of war when both armies have fallen back, a town presents a most desolate and forlorn appearance-the old people, women and children have no definite plans. They stand about in groups writing and talking of the latest battle or the expected skirmishes. Their homes are places to retire from inclement weather rather than to adorn – the table to satisfy hunger rather than the delightful board where sweet companionship mingled with health-giving food.

No systematic housekeeping, no aim, no object in performing any household duties. All energy was concentrated in doing for the soldiers. “When our boys come home we will do thus and so” was the oft repeated phrase. Sometimes at the dead of night the report of a pistol shot would warn us that the rebels were in town. But when daylight came we saw only the blue coats patrolling the streets, and they would leave as mysteriously as the rebels.


23_Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked
May – 1863 – Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked

24_Raider Andrew Leopold
NOTE Raider Andrew Leopold, whose sister, Sally Zittle, was a friend of Mary Entler, had been captured in late April, 1863 near Berryville and taken to a jail, awaiting trail for murder and other crimes.- JS

A beautiful May morning, balmy air waiting the perfume of flowers over the country submerged in war. Sparkling dew drops resting in the bosom of such blossoms like tiny tear drops-weeping for the sad hearts made sad by war. God sends beautiful days in war as well as peace- we must remember that.

A young prepossessing girl introduced herself to me on this May morning as a sister of Andrew Leopold. She told me her brother had been captured by the Yankees and was confined in Fort McHenry, MD, and that the entreaties of her widowed mother had induced her to try to get through the Federal lines to have an interview with (Confederate) General J.E.B. Stuart in regard to having her brother exchanged as a prisoner of war. . . She had been sent to me by a southern woman who knew I had carried letters through to Charles Town and thought I would accompany the young lady to that place, and acquaint her with friends who would assist her through the lines. I hesitated a moment and she said with tears that his mother had a message from Baltimore that if some powerful influence was not brought to bear immediately that her brother would be executed as a guerilla. That decided the matter.

We started off in a one horse carriage for Charles Town. She as a traveler was attired in a brown suit with a cape to match trimmed with quilling around it and a brown straw hat with a veil. I was to spend the day only and was dressed in a blue “Dolly Varden” pattern dress, blue silk bonnet with wide turn over cuffs and concealed in the lining of these cuffs were slips of paper with names of prominent Southern sympathizers who we were to call upon for any assistance. Before starting we concluded it would be better to go under fictitious names – she as Lucy Hamilton, and I as Louise Hamilton, her cousin. And with hearts filled with hope we started off that bright May morning on our errand of mercy.

Charles Town was reached in good time. We stopped where we were directed at Mrs. L’s and urged for safety to stay all night here-Lucy to start next morning southward and I to return home would arouse no suspicion. The next morning was quite as beautiful and arrangements were completed when I found she was getting timid about starting off alone. She entreated me to go just as far as Berryville and then she thought she would feel brave enough to travel alone. It was a big undertaking for two young girls as the country was then all excitement and confusion. I finally agreed to go to Berryville. We knew exactly where to stop and whom to see. All was planned before starting from home. I will never forget how beautiful Berryville looked the morning we drove up to the hotel. It was a village embowered in beautiful green trees, blooming flowers. The bees humming in the nectar-laden flowers produced that lazy, peaceful quiet that is so soothing to tired nerves. We made our arrangements with the proprietor and took a stroll through the pretty, cool looking streets.

We met Union soldiers and plenty of them but we did not feel any fear of our plans failing. In the evening we called upon the family next to the hotel and had music until late that night. Next morning while arranging to separate we were visited by a Yankee officer saying he wished to know here were were going, and that we must take the oath. At first we refused to take the oath but when we consented to take it he would not let us, but placed us under arrest. What a frustrating of all our plans. How my heart ached for that poor girl. How she had built her hopes on securing the release of her brother on this venture.

Under arrest by the Federals, Gen. Milroy flabbergasted:

25_head-quarters of General Milroy
Winchester reached, we were taken to the head-quarters of General Milroy where we found women, young and old, proud and defiant, now arguing their claims and proclaiming their grievances. One delicate, forlorn-looking widow relating to the General how his men, the Yankees, had taken her cows, her only means of support for her children. He turned from her quickly to my friend and me – if there had been the least disposition on my part to be humble – his exclamation put that feeling to flight and aroused a very rebellious state of mind. “What in the devil are you doing here? If it were not for the women running around the country we would not have so much trouble.” My companion started up with surprise. “General, we did not want to come here. We did not start for this place. Your officers brought us here.” He ran fingers through his mass of snow white hair already standing straight up like the quills of a porcupine and our of the audience chamber he strode without another word. He presented a fine physique, tall, well-proportioned, erect in carriage, a wealth of snow-white hair which suggested from its stand-up appearance that his fingers had a fashion of roaming there when troubles were to be, and plans and problems of great magnitude to be wrought out.


June – 1863:

We were soon before the Provost Marshall at Martinsburg awaiting his orders. Next morning we were taken to General Kelly at Harper’s Ferry to await further orders. We were assigned to the best boarding house in the town adjoining the General’s headquarters where a great many of the officers boarded. We had a guard to watch our movements and prevent our escape if we thought of anything of the kind. We were allowed to walk around the town accompanied by the guard and sometimes were invited by officers, to whom we were introduced, to attend concerts and places of amusements but the guard invariably followed behind to the disgust of our gallants. Lucy and I ignored the guard altogether. We did not care how tired he became running over the old hills of Harper’s Ferry after us and many were the taunts and comments we overheard about “secesh” (Confederate-sympathcizing) prisoners.

“Miranda!” and the voice startled us – for it came from under the ground – a cottage, vine-clad and embowered in trees and bushes right under our feet on the slope of a hill. (The voice then said: “Here comes the two ‘secesh’ prisoners again trailing that poor tired guard after them as unusual. He looks like he is ready to drop. Much I would follow behind them over these hills.” She lived there under the hill with her beautiful daughter. She had lots and lots of beautiful flowers but not one would she give us after we humbled ourselves to ask for one because we were rebels.

At Harper’s Ferry with your five mountains, your bright Potomac, your smiling languid Shenandoah, your historic Jefferson’s Rock and romantic stone steps leading to the temple of God – St. Peter’s Church. In the yard of this church, high above the streets and houses of Harper’s Ferry, the Fifth New York Regiment Band discoursed sweet music every Sunday evening of the six weeks Lucy and I were prisoners. The sweet strains of the “Mocking Bird” as only Henry Frunkenfield could render them, echoed from Loudoun Heights across the great Shenandoah over the beautiful rock-ribbed Potomac of Maryland Heights, back again the mountain breezes wafted them though the streets and windows as if a hundred mocking birds were trilling their soul-felt song.

As a piece of fun, we were dressed in fantastic costumes, slipped down a stairway, of which the General had no knowledge to the kitchen, to dance for the cook and her black “Topsy”. The guard was told that we were about to make our escape. He hunted the house over for his prisoners and when he found us he did not recognize us for some time, our disguise was so complete. Two guards questioned us until they were finally convinced that we were not attempting an escape.

Sabbath days and week days were all the same at Harper’s Ferry during the war. The soldiers and citizens would promenade the streets. The crowds would send forth their martial airs, dignified and soul-stirring also their merry dance tunes. But this one Sabbath day seemed so different from all others that we had spent at that place. The day was declining and from the description of an Italian sunset, I think the sunset of this evening far surpassed any such Italian scene. The golden rays touched the tree tops and they looked like burnished gold. The strains of music came from the high rocks where St. Peter’s Church rests peacefully. Darts and streaks of gold tips of trees on the mountain tops – the birds twitter and call to their mates in low tones. There is a hush as if all nature were bowed in silent prayer as the twilight settles over the valley. The beauty of this Sabbath will never fade from my memory. It was my last one there as a prisoner. The stillness was soon changed to wild confusion and excitement.

Mary Entler Jumps Sides:

I took the oath of allegiance to the United States in June, 1863 in Baltimore, Maryland to Col. Fish who was in command there at the time. I have passed from Gen’l Lockwood commander at H. Ferry 1863 also from Gen’l Stevenson.

late August, 1864 – afterwards Company H., 116 Ohio Infantry, Capt. Peters and Col. Washburns Regiment occupied it, and every partition in the front bedrooms were destroyed. Every mantel piece (they were colonial) all but two were burned. The floor in the garrett of the back building was also destroyed. Enough of new window sash and door frames for a house was stored too. cistern and well floors destroyed and cistern filled with bee hives and rubbish. A fine dressed stable with 25 partitioned off, with board partitions-upper story divided off for grain and sleeping quarters for oster. All was torn out and this weakened the roof so that when a snow came it collapsed. A brick carriage house met the same fate. My father Joseph Entler was an old man at the time, and was never after that financially able to put back what was destroyed by the United States soldiers.


MLH married on February 15, 1865 in Frederick, Maryland Walter L. Herrington, a ticket-agent on the B&O Railroad at Harper’s Ferry.

They lived in her parents’ home of Wingerd Cottage, her parents having been forcibly retired from inn-keeping. Mary’s husband worked as a photographer then, that same year, died an untimely death.

1910: MLH had a dry goods and milliners shop on the south side of German Street.

1914: Mary Herrington paid in trust to George Beltzhoover the remaining western half of the lot of the once Great Western Hotel for 0, a sum to be paid to Nellie M. Entler. – December 5, 1914, Deed Book 111, p. 505. – Jefferson County Clerk.

Mary Herrington was seventy-nine years old, living in Shepherdstown with her seventy-two-year-old-sister, Julia M. Miller, and brother, sixty-nine-year-old Lewis Little.

On June 20th MLH sold the dual-lot Great Western Inn to relative Harry T. Licklider on the condition that she could still live in the inn her natural life with her brother, “the said Home to consist of four rooms of the first floor and five rooms, including a summer kitchen and garden.” Two years later Licklider felt in arrears with the Swift Corporation and was sued and forced to sell the Great Western lands to pay off the debts. So the inn was gone from the family but MLH could literally live there, literally, on borrowed time.

She recalled:
Only the walls of the stables remain today in ruins, covered with Virginia Creeper to screen the ugly scars of the Civil War.

28_Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old
Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old but with her brother, Lewis Little, now listed as head of their house of the south side of German Street between King and Princess Streets near the center of the block, assessed at about ,000. Mary A. Licklider & Mary Herrington 1930 Census with her interviewer Mary A. Licklider living next door at the home of Edward Licklider, Mary’s father.

Mary Louise Herrington died March 27, 1932, having given much of these recollections to Mary A. Licklider, a descendant of Mary’s brother, Cato Moore Entler. Her marker is in Elmwood Cemetery. That summer, the new owner of the Great Western began massive alterations and reductions.

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Taylors, St Clements, Oxford
 Letting Agents Oxford
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Letting organizations.

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Indispensable tips for purchasing home

Prior to

get a residence, an person require to search for just how a lot cash he has for down payment and how a lot loan is needed. Based upon spending strategy, he can get in touch with banks and monetary organizations. Additionally, it is considerable to evaluate rate of interest as numerous business have diverse rates of interests. Each individual and nationalize banks in India provide loans to people who choose to buy a home. There are a variety of types of loans such as industrial creating loans and residential loans. As the name suggests, industrial loans are taken for the goal of markets and likewise, domestic or house loans are taken with an objective to create residences. House loans are becoming standard nowadays as optimal men and women who have been surviving lease earlier have actually began preparing to get a new residence.

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Government grants for housing for home buyers

Economy of the country is expanding and this is evident from the increasing number of opportunities available for service and business class. But there is a negative aspect of this economic expansion and that is inflation. The cost of everything required for a decent living has increased and it is quite difficult for an average homeowner to earn his living. Housing sector is the worst hit area and it is learnt that an average American family spends 40% of its annual income for housing. Millions of people live in rental homes and they dream of becoming homeowners. Time has come for renters to realize their dreams as they can buy properties with the help of government grants for housing.

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Costs of strategically located and well built homes have gone up and it is quite difficult for an average American family to buy a home without taking any financial assistance. When it comes to getting financial assistance, people rush to banks and other financial institutions but little do they know that there are many government grants for housing that they can get and buy their dream properties. Grant is free money that the receiver needs not to repay. Housing grant is a blessing for homeless and renters that want to own their homes and lead a decent life.

Home buyers can look for various government grants for housing at HUD.Gov, the US government’s funding portal. Here the home buyers can find everything that the US federal government has to offer. Home buyers can visit this portal and draw valuable information on housing grants by government. Also the portal would guide the home buyers in applying for various grants. Presently housing grants are available from Energy Innovation Fund – Multifamily Pilot Program. The US Department of Housing provides financial assistance to home buyers under its HOME program. There are many programs and you can find details of all the grants at HUD.Gov.

John Walburger has a wide experience of working with various renowned public and government organizations which deal in providing grants to people with low income. The author has helped many people to collect the information on such government grants that can assist improve their lives.For More Information Please Visit, government grants for housing and education grants for minority .

 Government grants for housing for home buyers
Image by Jim Surkamp

Civil War Scholars: The Powerful Experience of the War-Torn, Northern Shenandoah Valley

Newton D. Baker’s “Most” Divided Clan (Pt. 1 of 4) by Jim Surkamp
By Jim Surkamp on February 2, 2016 in Jefferson County

NEWTON D. BAKER’S “MOST” DIVIDED CLAN (Pt. 1 of 4) by Jim Surkamp

Cousins of Co_F_FINAL

Each generation rebels against the former. The Bakers of Maryland, Shepherdstown and finally Martinsburg – muddled thru traditional inter-generational discords like a schooner pitching through high seas. Elias Baker one-upped a father who deserted his children by being a good father. His son, antsy nineteen-year-old Newton D. Baker rebelled against his doting father, a soon-to-be appointed federal postmaster in Shepherdstown, by riding off and enlisting in Company F of the First Virginia Cavalry – Confederate – following the recent example of a figurative avalanche of nine of his blood cousins into that same company. Still more cousins would enlist.

Life in a wartime saddle matured him for four years: battles, imprisonment, routine heroics, his wounding, having a fine bay mare shot from under him, (and later, a suspiciously extravagant compensation package for this lost horse offered by a cousin with clout), and, finally, coming home. Bearing witness to so many in need of medical care begat Newton’s post-war calling as a doctor. He finished training, was mentored by Shepherdstown neighbor and physician, John Quigley, who transferred his practice to the young up-and-comer.

But burgeoning ambition called away the next son of a Baker – Newton D. Baker Jr. Reading voraciously and eschewing the stethoscope and his father’s beckoning practice, off Junior went to Cleveland – joking that he was being a carpetbagger invading the Northern states – ascending a skyward ladder to heights of acclaim unprecedented for the Bakers. He was the progressive mayor of Cleveland; then, after more promotions, President Woodrow Wilson approached his fellow Virginian and appointed Newton D. Baker, Jr. to be our Secretary of War, managing the best he could the American role in the calamitous First World War. Today we have the Newton D. Baker Veterans’ Hospital in Martinsburg to his fond memory.


The Bakers once of Shepherdstown were busy each generation rebelling in full measure from the former. Each time, the new generation would reckon a new guiding star deemed a wiser calling than their parents.

The Baker generations progressed from a single outcast, who led one Baker generation, then to another family member, three cycles later, who was even considered in 1932 a potential candidate for the Presidency.



Called by one family biographer, C. H. Cramer, “a soft spot in the family tree,” he wrote: “(They) could take no pride in this Elias Baker, an Englishman, who settled about 1760 in Maryland near the later site of the battle of Antietam. There Elias married, started a family (ten boys and five girls), and then deserted it.” – Cramer, p. 15.



Starting anew, Elias Baker, Jr. left Bakersville, Maryland, the family’s ancestral lands, and crossed the Potomac to Berkeley County, Va. He found his lifemate, Mary Ann Billmyer (1816-1896) living at the Millbrook farm, one of thirteen children to her prosperous parents, Martin and Susan Billmyer. She and her siblings were struggling with their farms after the death in the mid-1830s of both their parents.

She and Elias married November, 1840 and first lived in Appomatox County, Elias making and fixing saddles. The next decade brought the deaths of three of Mary Ann’s older brothers and a sister, while their own young family grew by two sons and a daughter. The first-born in 1841 had brown hair and blue eyes and he was named Newton Diehl Baker, who this story is about.

The Bakers moved in March, 1850 to Van Clevesville and closer to her large family. Susan Baker’s parents and older brothers had grown wheat and had a booming business at their own mill across the road from their home. This much-in-demand ground wheat would be carried across the toll bridge that Mary Ann’s brother, David, largely owned at Shepherdstown and was shipped by canal boats to Georgetown and overseas buyers.


In March, 1857, they came to Shepherdstown and Mary Ann Baker used family inheritance to buy out brother David’s boat store at the northeast corner of Church and German Street.

In March, 1858, she also bought – seven, quick-succession doors to the west on German Street – what would become the Baker residence well into the 20th century – room enough for their family of eight children: Newton, Ann Katherine, Cora Louise, Martin Billmyer, Solomon Elmer, William Elias Fink, Alban Howard, and Henry Seaton. – A. D. Kenamond, “Prominent Men of Shepherdstown 1762-1962.” p. 21.


The John Brown raid and trial in October, 1859 and the subsequent hangings of seven of the raiders up to March, 1860 set the stage for the presidential election that coming fall. According to Andrew Hunter, the prosecutor in the John Brown trial, the fright that came to locals with the John Brown raid was that it was, to them really, the overture to what they plainly called The War Against Slavery. – Andrew Hunter. Sept 5, 1887 New Orleans Times Democrat.

Lincoln’s election in November, 1860 and the Deep South states’ seceding despite Lincoln’s warnings – brought the nation and Jefferson Countians to the edge of the precipice.

In Shepherdstown, the older generation, born around 1800 – such as Dr. John and Mary Quigley, Elias and Susan Baker, and even Robert E. Lee’s first cousin, Edmund Jennings Lee – strongly voiced their opposition to any such plan for Virginia to secede from the Union.


The daughter of Edmund J. Lee, teen-aged Henrietta Edmonia or “Netta,” wrote later of a run-in in early 1861 between her father and brother Edmund:
I remember very vividly a gathering when Uncle Charles Lee was present. He was my father’s younger brother and a lawyer by profession. He came from Washington to consult Father regarding his resignation of the position he was holding in one of the departments of the United States government.


My brother, Edmund, Jr. and a boy of about fifteen years, who was standing by during the conversation, said: “Why Uncle Charles, could you not get the same position in the Confederate States government?” Father turned quickly, saying: “You young rascal,” strongly emphasizing the broad “a” as was his habit, “let me hear you talk about any Confederate States and I will skin you!” – Diary of Nettie Lee, pp. 4-5.


When war became unavoidable, David Hunter Strother of Martinsburg, who was a Unionist from another divided family and later an officer in the Federal army, was observing the moods of Jefferson County’s people. The younger were excited but: “I thought I could discern in the eyes of some of the older and wiser (African-Americans) a gleam of anxious speculation – a silent and tremulous questioning of the future. . . There were also some among the white citizens who stood aloof in silence and sadness, protesting against the proceeding by an occasional bitter sigh or significant sneer, but nothing more.

But the thirst for adventure was almost unquenchable among the young, having been prepared for adventure their entire lives.

Wrote one of these young local cavalrymen in later years:
Young men of the present day, who flourish in fine buggies, smoke cigars and cigarettes, part their hair in the middle, and occasionally greet “inspiring bold John Barley Corn,” can ill appreciate the pastimes and pleasures of the youth of a generation ago, when the horse, the gun, and the dog were the ne plus ultra of masculine aspirations. Those good old days of innocent sports and recreations, are still valued as the brightest and happiest in life. Alas! of our little group, that often chased the squirrel from tree-to-tree and made the forests ring with volleys of musketry, or startled the partridge from its repose in the fields, but two are left to tell the tale. That acquaintance with the horse, which began in early childhood, soon ripened into affection, and the horse and rider were one in life and action. – Baylor, p. 15.
NOTE “inspiring, bold John Barley Corn” is taken from Robert Burns’ poem “Tam O-Shanter.” POEM’S FULL TEXT UNDER “REFERENCES.”

Wrote another local man who joined the Federal cause:


Horses and firearms are their playthings from childhood. Impatient of the restraints of school houses and work shops they seek life and pleasure in the soil, and thus early learn the topography of nature, the ways of the fields and forests, swamps, and mountains. Their social and political life, but little restrained by law or its usage, develops a vigorous individuality. For the most part, ignorant of the luxuries and refinements of cities, they prefer bacon and Scotch whisky to venison and champagne. Tall, athletic, rough, and full of fire and vitality, the half-horse, half-alligator type still predominates . . .
Strother, p. 6.

Young men, who from the moment their feet could reach the stirrups were attuned for adventure and to the dismay of their sober parents, quickly responded to the call to arms when President Lincoln put out a call for 75,000 volunteers to bring all the seceding states back. By mid-April, 1861, young men in Virginia had to choose to be one of those volunteers or rebel. While about 128 African Americans from the County would join the United States Colored Troops, some Unionist County boys who were white left the area to escape the threats of imprisonment and more from the area firebrand, Turner Ashby. But most of the young men rebelled.

Wrote one who witnessed events in Charlestown, Va.:
Alas! poor boy, what sense of duty or prudent counsels could hold him in the whirl of this moral maelstrom? What did he care for the vague terror of an indictment for treason, or the misty doctrine of Federal supremacy? What did he know of nationality beyond the circle of friends and kindred? What was his sneaking, apologetic, unsympathetic life worth after all?

But according to my judgment the greater number of these young volunteers were moved neither by social pressure nor political prejudice. The all-pervading love of adventure and fighting instincts were the most successful recruiting officers of the occasion. For they had heard of battles, and had longed to follow to the field some warlike lord – so at the first roll of the drum they rushed cheerily from school house and office, counter and work shop, field and fireside, earnest, eager, reckless fellows, marching with a free and vigorous step, sitting their horses like wild Pawnees, most admirable material for a rebellion, just as good soldiers for the Government if perchance the rub-a-dub of the Union drums had first aroused their martial ardor. – Strother, Excerpted from “Personal Recollections of the War,” from “Harper’s New Monthly Magazine,” July, 1866, Vol. XXXIV, p. 141.


While there were still a few men found who stubbornly struggled against the sweeping current, the women of all ages and conditions threw themselves into it without hesitation or reserve. His schoolmates and companions who had already donned ‘the gray’ scarce concealed their scorn. His sisters, rallied, reproached, and pouted, blushing to acknowledge his ignominy. His Jeannette, lately so tender and loving, now refused his hand in the dance, and, passing him with nose in air, bestowed her smiles and her bouquet upon some gallant rival with belt and buttons. Day-after-day he saw the baskets loaded with choice viands, roasted fowls, pickles, cakes, and potted sweetmeats, but not for him. Wherever he went there was a braiding of caps and coats, a gathering of flowers and weaving of wreaths, but none for him – no scented and embroidered handkerchiefs waved from carriage-windows as he rode by. The genial flood of social sympathy upon which he had hitherto floated so blandly had left him stranded on the icy shore. Then come the cheering regiments with their drums and banners, the snorting squadrons of glossy prancing steeds the jingling of knightly spurs, the stirring blast of the trumpets. There they went – companionship, love, life, glory, all sweeping by to Harper’s Ferry! – Strother, Excerpted from “Personal Recollections of the War,” from “Harper’s New Monthly Magazine,” July, 1866, Vol. XXXIV, p. 141.


Sewing societies were organized, and delicate hands which had never before engaged in ruder labor than the hemming of a ruffle now bled in the strife with gray jeans and tent cloth. Haversacks, knapsacks, caps, jackets, and tents were manufactured by hundreds and dozens.


The gift most in vogue from a young lady to her favored knight was a headdress imitated from those worn by the British troops in India and called a Havelock, (that Gen. Jackson later forebade because it made his men easier targets.-ED). Laden with musket, sabre, pistol, and bowie-knife, no youth considered his armament complete unless he had one of these silly clouts stretched over his hat.

Woe to the youth who did not need a Havelock; who, owing to natural indisposition or the prudent counsel of a father or a friend, hesitated to join the army of the South. The curse of Clan Alpin on those who should prove recreant to the sign of the fiery cross was mere dramatic noise compared with the curse that blighted his soul. – Ibid. p. 141.


Many of these young men, including several men from the Moler clan were in the line that first, fateful day on April 18, 1861, when the local militia assembled to seize the federal armory, with the inked signatures still damp in Richmond on the voted document by Virginia to secede. The armory burned before they seized it, but hard drilling began just days later at Bolivar Heights, under the unknown, erstwhile professor at Virginia Military Institute, Col. Thomas Jonathan Jackson.


That day, nine of Newton’s cousins rode away from their farm steads in Berkeley and Jefferson County to join Company F of the newly-formed Shepherdstown Troop of 1st Virginia Cavalry, commanded by 6’2” slender, dark-haired, full-bearded 37-year-old William Augustine Morgan, who lived with his family at their home, Falling Springs, just south of Shepherdstown.

Newton’s cousins joining that day – called Company F – all were the sons of siblings of his mother: brothers Conrad Billmyer (1797–1847); John Joseph Billmyer (1802–1845), sisters Judith Billmyer Koontz (1795-1856); Susan Billmyer McQuilkin (1798-1873); and Esther Mary Billmyer Lemen (1800-1887). Other cousins followed, joining both North and South. (See “References”)

Cousins of Co_F_FINAL

So many from the family were in Company F, it at times seemed their own. The first cousins to enlist were (with service record summaries):
– Snyder, Vivian P. (1999). Twenty First Cousins in the Civil War. Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society. Vol. LXV. pp. 47-51; Driver, Robert J. (1991). “1st Virginia Cavalry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print. – More. . .

1. BILLMYER, JAMES M.: b. Va. 12/4/1836. 5’11’, fair complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes. Merchant, Shepherdstown PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 Co. F as 1st Sgt. 1st Virginia Cav. Horse killed Bull Run 7/21/61. Present through 1/6/62. To 2nd Lt. Present through 5/1/62. Not re-elected. Re-enl. Pvt. Fredericksburg 8/1/63. Present through 8/64. Acting Adjutant of Regt. 2/12/65. Paroled Winchester 4/27/65. d. 2/20/1913. bur. Berkeley County. – Service Record; Snyder. 1860 Census.

2. BILLMYER, JOHN T.: b. Va. 1/11/32. 5’8′, fair complexion, dark hair, grey eyes. 1st Lt., Co. F. Deputy Sheriff, Vanclevesville PO, Berkeley Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 as Sgt. 1st Virginia Cav. Present until detached with baggage trains 3/4/62. Present through 10/20/62. Elected 2nd Lt. To 1st Lt. Present until WIA Five Forks 4/1/65. Paroled Mt. Jackson 4/18/65. d. 3/26/74. bur. Elmwood Cem. Shepherdstown. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48.

3. BILLMYER, MILTON J.: b. Va. 10/10/34. Farmer, Jefferson Co. 6′, fair complexion, light hair, blue eyes. Captain, Co. F. 1st Virginia Cav., Vanclevesville PO, Berkeley Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 as Pvt. Present through 7/1/61, appointed 1st Lt. Present through 10/12/62. elected Captain. Present until WIA (left thigh) Haw’s Shop 5/28/64. Absent wounded in Richmond hospital until furloughed for 30 days 7/14/64. Present Appomattox. Paroled Winchester 4/27/65. d. near Shepherdstown, W.Va. 8/31/07. bur. Elmwood Cem. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48.

4. LEMEN, JOHN JAMES ALEXANDER: b. Va. 11/19/39. 5’7″. fair complexion, dark hair, grey eyes. Farmhand, Charles Town PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown Co. F. 4/18/61 as Pvt. 1st Virginia Cav. Present until captured 7/61. Exch. Present 9/62. Captured Smithfield 5/31/63. Sent to Ft. Monroe. Exch. 6/5/63. Present until absent sick in Richmond hospital 8/24/64. Released 6/30/64. d. 1/10/71. bur. Elmwood Cem. Shepherdstown, W.Va. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

5. LEMEN, THOMAS THORNTON.: b. Va. 8/15/42. Student, Charles Town PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Co. F Shepherdstown 4/18/61 1st Virginia Cav. Pvt. Present until WIA Aldie 6/17/63. POW Middleburg d. 6/20/63. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

6. LEMEN, WILLIAM THORNBURG: b. Va. 6/15/35. 5’10”. fair complexion, brown hair, grey eyes. Farmer, Charles Town PO, Jefferson Co. 1860 census. enl. Co. F 1st Virginia Cav. Shepherdstown 4/18/61. Present through 8/61, promoted 3rd Sgt. Present through 8/62, promoted 2nd Sgt. Promoted 1st Sgt 10/20/62. Present 10/63. Present through 8/64. Paroled Winchester 4/18/65. d. near Hedgesville, W.Va. 4/17/99. bur. Elmwood Cem., Shepherdstown, W.Va. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

7. LEMEN, WILLOUGHBY: b. Va. 11/20/44. 5’10”. enlisted 4/18/61 Co. F, 1st Virginia Cav. under William A. Morgan. Present thru to 10/20/1862. Promoted to 1st Sgt. 1st Virginia Cav. Present thru 11/1863. Service records show name change from “William T. Lemen” to Willoughby N. Lemen 11-12-63. Captured 4/65. 12/28/64 promoted to Junior 2nd Lieut. Paroled 4/18/65. d. 7/19/1913. buried Elmwood Cem. – Tombstone Inscriptions, p. 170; Kenamond, p. 74; Service Record (pp. 15-28, start @ p. 15); Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.

8.MCQUILKIN, WILLIAM H.: b. Va. 1841. Laborer Charles Town enl. Co. F. Shepherdstown 4/18/61 as Pvt. 1st Virginia Cav. Fell ill with pneumonia and was granted sick furlough August 31st, 1861; sent to hospital December 26th, and died January 6th, 1862 at Manassas. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 48.; 1860 Census.

9. KOONTZ, THORNTON: b. Va. 12/16/21. enl. 4/18/61 Co. F, 1st Va. Cav. Sgt. Present through 4/62. Reassigned under Milton J. Billmyer. Pvt. substitute for Robert K. Wilson. POW paroled 4/18/65. d. 5/12/86. bur. Elmwood Cem. – Tombstone Inscriptions, p. 168. Service Record; Snyder, p. 47. 1860 Census.

APRIL 19, 1861 – Martinsburg: Two more cousins of Newton’s enlist in Company B of the 1st Virginia Cavalry:

10.NOLL, WILLIAM T.: Va. b. 10/2/32. enlisted Co. B, 1st Virginia Cav. Martinsburg 4/19/61, promoted to 2nd lieutenant. Present until 5-6/62 sick. Bay mare killed 8/21/64 Berryville, Va. Present 7/62-4/65. Paroled 4/18/65 Winchester. d. 2/27/03. – Service Record; Snyder, p. 47. 1860 Census.

11. LEMEN, WILLIAM MARTIN: b. Va. 12/6/31. enlisted Co. B, 1st Virginia Cav. Martinsburg 4/19/61. On daily duty attending to the sick. Present until 2/11/62 on furlough. On detached service with regimental medical dept. Paroled 4/26/65 Winchester. d. 5/2/03. Service Record; Snyder, p. 48. 1860 Census.



BILLMYER, ROBERT LEMEN (1843-1910) – Another son of Newton’s uncle, Conrad Billmyer (1797–1847), enlisted June 28, 1861 at Shepherdstown:

12.BILLMYER, ROBERT LEMEN: b. Va. 9/25/43, Student, 5’6″. fair complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes. Vanclevesville PO, Berkeley Co. 1860 census. enl. Shepherdstown 6/28/63. Pvt., Co. F. 1st Virginia Cav. Present through 12/63. Absent on detached service 1/25-2/28/64. Present through 8/64. WIA (head) Winebrenner’s Cross Roads near Shepherdstown 9/64. Present Appomattox 4/9/65 and carried flag of truce to the enemy. Paroled Winchester 4/18/65. He lived in the county after the war. d. near Shepherdstown, W.Va. 3/19/10. bur. Elmwood Cem. Service Record; 1860 Census.

Newton’s other uncle, John Joseph Billmyer (1802–1845)’s wife, Eliza Williamson Lemen Billmyer (1806-1886), had two brothers and a sister who provided four more (2 Joneses, 2 Williamsons) enlistees into the 1st Virginia Cavalry and a second brother of Eliza’s provided three soldiers for the Union. – Snyder, pp. 48-51.

Eliza Billmyer’s sister – Mary O. Lemen (1811-1909) married Adrian Wynkoop Jones (1805-1877).- Snyder, p. 49. Their sons who enlisted were:

13. JONES, JOHN REYNOLDS: b. 1844. enl. 8/20/64 Shepherdstown Co. F. 1st Va Cav. under M. J. Billmyer. POW. Paroled 4/21/65 Winchester. d. 1887. – Service Record; 1860 Census.

14. JONES, THOMAS J. or F.: b. 1839 record only confirms being in Co. F. of 1st Va Cavalry. d. 1923. 6 September 2011 Web. 1 December 2015. – Service Record; 1860 Census.

Eliza Billmyer’s brother, Jacob, married; they had two sons; Jacob died and his widow raised the two sons with an uncle of Eliza Billmyer’s named Williamson, who adopted the boys. – Snyder, pp. 49-50. The young men enlisted as:

15. WILLIAMSON, MATTHEW WHITE: b. 1845. enl. 8/13/1861 at New Market, Va. with Captain Morgan, Co. F 1st Va. Cavalry. Present sent on detached service 1/20/1864. Present 7-8/64. Paroled 5/9/1865. Winchester. d. 1930. Service Record; 1860 Census.

16. WILLIAMSON, THOMAS LEMEN: b. 1847. Only record is being a prisoner of war, being in Co. F of the 1st Va. Cavalry and having been paroled 4/9/1865 at New Market, Va. Description: height 5’9”, hair: light, eyes: blue. d. 1875. Service Record; 1860 Census.

Eliza Billmyer’s second brother, Robert Lemen (1813-1898) and his wife, Sarah Elizabeth Light (1816-1883), had three sons who went with the Federal Army’s First Maryland Cavalry: In Co. I, Peter (1840-1921); In Co. H, Jacob F. (1842-1922), and Thomas J. (1843-1908). – Snyder, pp. 50-51. The boys enlisted as:

17. LEMEN, PETER L.: b. 1840. 5’9.5” dark complexion, blue eyes, light hair. enl. 9/3/61 Camp Lamon, Williamsport, Md. for three years. Pvt. Capt. Russell’s Co. 1st Va. Cav.(later Co. I. First Md Cav.). 12/30/61 on detached service Williamsport, Md. 5-6/62 detailed at the Ferry at Williamsport on Potomac. 3/9/64 on detached service, clerk in the Provost Marshall’s office Baltimore City, Md. by order of Brig. Gen. Lockwood S.O. No. 61, Par 9. 9/3/64 mustered out, term of service expired. d. 1921. Service Record; 1860 Census.

18. LEMEN, JACOB F.: b. 1842 enl. 9/6/61, mustered in 12/31/61 Williamsport, Md. Pvt. Capt. Zeller’s Co. 1st Reg’t Va. Volunteers (later Co. H. First Md Cav.). Present 1/61-4/63. POW 5-8/63. Present 9/63-12/64. Discharged 12/3/64 term of service expired. d. 1922. Service Record; 1860 Census.

19. LEMEN, THOMAS J.: b. 1843. enl. 9/3/61 Camp Lamon Pvt. Capt. Russell’s Co. 1st Va. Cav.(later Co. I. First Md Cav.) for three years. Present 3-4/62-8/63. Promoted to corporal. 3/26/64 Reduced to Pvt. Present 4/64. 9/3/64 mustered out, term of service expired. d. 1908. – Service Record; 1860 Census.

William Morgan’s son, Augustine, with Mrs. Anna Morgan Getzendanner, recounted that fateful “join-up” day of April 18th, as his father left home:

For some time, the ominous cloud of war hung over us, only to burst at length with all its stern reality. Though but six years of age, I can clearly recall the great anxiety and gloom that predominated. Owing to my extreme youth, I could not comprehend the fact that we were upon the verge of a great conflict. My parents solemnly conversed in low tones and all about the house seemed confusion for what my father informed me was the getting ready for his departure from home, and with his Company, of which he was Captain, to enter the Confederate Army. He said that there would be a great war and that his services were needed and that he must not shirk his duty. He also told me that I would be the only man left to protect my mother and little sisters. I inquired the meaning of war and Father made me understand – that war was fighting, killing, one army against another, cruel and barbarous but often a necessary evil and unavoidable. In good faith I was ready to accede to my father’s demands and my bosom swelled proudly at the confidence he imposed in me.

The eventful day arrived when my Father mounted upon George, a beautiful grey horse, at the head of his company, left for the war. We stood at the gate, my mother, little sisters and I, also Mammy Liza and Uncle Ned, servants of our home. We waved farewell and Mother wept though she little realized that war would endure for months and years. The parting from Father was painful and the responsibilities of protection of the house and family seemed in my childish idea, a heavy one. Father was a splendid equestrian and sat his horse with ease. Tall and slender, blue of eye, his hair dark as the raven’s wing, my father seemed to me a perfect type of what a soldier should be. – Getzendanner, Anna Morgan and Morgan Augustine C. “A Boy’s Recollections of the Civil War – 1861-1865.” Shepherdstown, WV: Self-published. pp. 1-2.

Morgan’s younger brother, Daniel (1835-1865) who was living on Shepherdstown’s German Street with their widowed mother, enlisted in Co. F the same day as William. Their brother, “Jack” Smith Morgan (1838-?) enlisted in Company F on May 11, 1861. Both in 1862 would seek places in other companies in the 1st Virginia as their brother became the commander of Company F. – Driver, p. 210.




Spending his days clerking in his father’s store that would in a year become the official Federal post office at that northeast corner of Church and German Streets in Shepherdstown, and daily with his mother and his prosperous, pro-Union uncle, David Billmyer – the stark choice weighed heavily upon nineteen-year-old Newton. Five more of his cousins would enlist later in Morgan’s Company F; while, still, three other kin of Newton’s would enlist in the Federal 1st Maryland Cavalry Regiment. – Snyder, pp. 49-51;

On the warm, clear Friday of June 15th, when the encamped Confederate soldiers and cavalry at Harpers Ferry rose to reveille at 4 AM and began leaving, most for Charlestown – up the road, Newton rode a fine bay mare from home toward Charlestown, joining, late that day, Morgan and his cousins at a campsite on the Bullskin Run a few miles south of Charlestown. Newton Baker became Private Baker of Co. F with a lot to learn. – Vairin; Service Record N. D. Baker.

Father Elias was a northern sympathizer and was not pleased to have his son Newton Diehl serving the Confederacy. Father Elias spoke to his son only once during the war. Records suggest that when his son was held prisoner at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, that that was the most likely moment Elias Baker went to bring his exchanged son out of prison. – Kenamond, pp. 21-22; Service Records.

In fact, by 1862 with the townspeople’s sympathies also splitting into two camps, Elias Baker, who would be appointed by President Lincoln to be Shepherdstown’s postmaster, a post he would hold until well after the war, diplomatically split mail delivery duties with his Confederate counterpart and fellow townsmen, Daniel Rentch.

Father Elias Baker’s postmaster job, starting in 1862, almost required him to shun his son.

A biographer of Newton’s son, wrote of the relationship between Elias and Newton when peacetime came:
Elias Baker was devoted to the Union, received an appointment from President Lincoln as postmaster at Shepherdstown, and retained the Federal office throughout the War. Son Newton Baker, as a member of the Cavalry commanded by Jeb Stuart, fought at Gettysburg, was captured, and exchanged to fight again at Richmond. . . but had a tolerant attitude that was one of his strongest qualities. He felt that the War ended with Lee’s surrender and he was willing to accept the Northern victory. Cramer pp. 13-15.

BAKER, NEWTON DIEHL: b. Washington County, Md. 10/3/41. 5’6″ fair complexion, brown hair, blue eyes. attended Wittenberg College one year. clerk Shepherdstown post office, Jefferson County. enlisted in the 1st Virginia Cavalry Charles Town 6/15/61 as Pvt. in Co. F. Present until detached to Gainesville 12/10/61. Captured Smithfield 5/31/63. Sent to Ft. McHenry. Exch. 6/63. Promoted 2nd Corp. Present until detailed as ordinance sgt of regt 11/15/63. Horse killed 8/19/64. Wounded in thigh Fishers Hill 9/22/64. Paroled Winchester 4/23/65. medical school 1868. surgeon for the B&O railroad. d. Martinsburg 1909. – Driver, Robert J. (1991). “1st Virginia Cavalry.” Lynchburg, Va.: H. E. Howard, Inc. Print.



By the month of June the circle of more robust characters that still retained their political sanity was small and diminishing daily. They did not drop off now after long and lingering arguments, painful doubts, rallyings, and relapses as formerly; but a normal mind would fall suddenly into incoherence and frenzy. Principles based upon the education and habits of a lifetime, sustained by the clearest views of interest, the pride of consistency, and every sentiment of honor, would perish in a night, like the gourd of Jonah. This change was easily discernible in the countenance and demeanor of its victims. Yesterday your friend looked in your face with a clear and earnest eye, and discussed questions calmly and logically. To-day he shunned you, his eye was restless and unsteady, his manner painfully excited, his talk full of incoherencies; in a short time you would perceive there was a total absorption of all his previous opinions, idiosyncrasies, social sympathies, and antipathies, moral and intellectual characteristics, in the prevailing frenzy. These phenomena, which at first excited indignation, grief, and amazement, in the course of time ceased to surprise, and became subjects of merriment. Among ourselves we speculated jocosely as to who would go under next; and in the privacy of our own souls entertained the question, whether it was the world around us or ourselves that was mad. It is useful, perhaps, but not the less humiliating to human pride, to test the depth and power of individual principle and will, to ascertain precisely for how many days and hours ones best-founded opinions and most positive convictions will maintain themselves unsupported against the current of society and the menaces of power. From the observations of these few months I have become convinced that no amount of clear conviction, rectitude of purpose, or moral heroism can long maintain a passive defense against the assaults of an active and fiery enthusiasm. Organization must meet organization; passion blaze out against passion; the audacious and unscrupulous spirit of revolution must be counteracted by a spirit as bold and remorseless as itself. The idea is expressed with more point and brevity in the popular epigram, “One must fight the Devil with fire.” The National Government had thus far lost every thing by its temporizing and conciliatory policy. –
Strother, David H. (July, 1866). “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” Harpers Magazine. Cornell Digital Library – The Making of America. 19 July 2011. Web. 29 January 2014.


1. NEWTON BAKER’S “MOST” DIVIDED CLAN (Pt. 1 of 4) (above) by Jim Surkamp
4. NEWTON BAKER”S REMARKABLE SON (Pt. 4 of 4) by Jim Surkamp…

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